The thyroid gland and its hormones, together with nervous and immune systems, takes part in the coordination and regulation of all organs (heart, brain, kidney, etc.). The agreed "band" signals, nerve impulses and biological substances thyroid hormones perform beggars "fiddle".
The reason it is of special importance of thyroid hormones for the body is that they need all the tissues and every cell synthroid testimonials. Simply put, without them it is impossible to exist.
The role of the thyroid gland is so significant that its study is allocated to a separate discipline - thyroidologists, and after the Chernobyl accident and Fukushima, it is under scrutiny.
The problem of an imbalance of thyroid hormones known for many centuries. Ancient doctors first noticed the increase in its size during adolescence and pregnancy. BC in China, already knew how to prevent the appearance of goitre - enlarged glands, the use of seaweed. The rounded and swollen neck during the Renaissance was the sign of female attractiveness, which is emphasized in his paintings, Rembrandt, Dürer, Van Dyck. Nervous and excitable character, as a result of an excess of thyroid hormones were in vogue in the XVII century in Spain. Calm and graceful slowness was valued Swiss aristocrats, but they did not suspect that the reason for this deficiency of iodine, the thyroid gland necessary.
The structure of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck just below the Adam's apple. For the first time described the hardware as a separate body, the Roman physician Galen, a name she received much later in the XVII century. prostate name comes from the Greek words "tireos" - shield and "idos" - type, ie body having the form of a shield. International name of the organ of internal secretion - thyroid gland. The shape of the thyroid gland resembles a butterfly or a horseshoe, there are three main parts - the two lateral lobes and an isthmus. Every third has another changeable slice - pyramidal.
Gland sizes can vary considerably even in the same person depending on the activity of its functioning. Gender, age, climate, medication and, of course, the nature of power is largely influenced by the size and number of thyroid hormones. Due to the tight connection with the larynx position it can change, it goes up and down with swallowing, shifting sideways when turning the head in different directions, as can be seen with the naked eye
The structure of the thyroid gland is quite complicated. Under the microscope, noticeable that it consists of a plurality of bubbles - follicles. Along the edges of follicle cells are located - thyrocites and within the follicle is a thick watery liquid - colloid. Thyrocites synthesize hormones, and they accumulate in the colloid for immediate entry into blood when required.
The walls between the cells of follicles, as well as between the follicles are larger, light parafolikulyarnye cells (C-cells) producing calcitonin hormone involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. It inhibits the excretion of calcium from the bones and reduces blood calcium.
The main two hormones that are produced by the thyroid gland - triiodothyronine (it includes three iodine molecules) and tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (contains four iodine molecules). Shorten thyroid hormones referred to as T3 and T4. The T4 cells and tissues of the body is gradually turning into T3, which is the main biologically active hormone directly affects the metabolism.
The formation of thyroid hormones associated with a specific protein thyroglobulin. Thyroglobulin is a backup form of thyroid hormones and is located within the colloid.
The preparation of thyroid hormones requires two mandatory components - iodine, an essential amino acid tyrosine. For the formation of a T4 molecule need four iodine molecules, and for T3 - only three. Without iodine synthesis of hormones stops completely. That is why it is important to prevent a lack of iodine in the diet. Tyrosine supplied in the diet, it is the precursor not only in the formation of thyroid hormone but also adrenaline, melanin dopamine.
Isolation of thyroid hormones is controlled by two "parent" endocrine glands. The area of the brain that links together the nervous and endocrine system, called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus receives information about the level of thyroid hormones and produces compounds that affect the pituitary. The pituitary gland is also located in the brain in a special recess - sella. He identifies several dozen complex in structure and action of hormones, but on the thyroid gland is only one of them - the thyroid-stimulating hormone, or TSH.
The level of thyroid hormones in the blood and signals from the hypothalamus to stimulate or inhibit the release of TSH. For example, if the amount of thyroxine in the blood is small, then it will know about and pituitary and hypothalamus. The pituitary TSH immediately provide that activates the release of hormones from the thyroid gland.
Low temperature and state of stress lead to a more active release of TSH and thus increase the amount of T3 and T4 levels. During sleep, the TSH is almost not formed.
Triple-axis interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system allows you to know about the amount of hormones the thyroid glands are not only higher, but also the nervous system, which is directly dependent and affects the hormonal regulation.
As it was already possible to guess, thyroid hormones - an integral part of our body. Therefore, monitor the condition of the prostate is necessary. Its function can be determined by passing a special examination. Ultrasonic method show shapes, sizes, and various changes in the gland. Hormonal blood test will give information about its secretory function.
Must comply with the most basic recommendation preventive measures for disease prevention. And this, of course, a healthy lifestyle and proper diet. Use to eat more iodine-containing products. First of all, it is seafood - seaweed, tuna, salmon, flounder. Of fruit - bananas, oranges, persimmons. Among vegetables - garlic, eggplant, sorrel, onions. By introducing products in the daily diet of this type, you niveliruete problem of lack of thyroid hormone.
More Leonardo da Vinci in the image of a young woman on his canvas "Madonna and Child" embodied the sublime, perfect beauty and the child's mother. In the picture there is harmony and tranquility. It seems that the unity of the internal and external provide hormones, and primarily, of course - thyroid hormones.