Breast cancer in children - a rare disease

The frequency of and the peculiarities of breast cancer in childhood

Cancer - a malignant tumor, the cells which are formed by surface layers mutation cells (epithelium) of the skin or mucous membranes. Unfortunately, cancer sometimes develops in childhood. One of the rarest forms of cancer is breast cancer in children.

Pediatric cancer, ie malignant tumors based on the epithelium, is much rarer than in adults. Much more common in this age group is developing a sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from connective tissue. However, there are exceptions. Most children in developing thyroid cancer, nasopharynx, and liver purchase nolvadex online.

Breast cancer in children - this is a very rare disease (0,046% of all malignant tumors in childhood), which often develops in adolescents after 12 years.

Cancer flow especially in children it is not a malignant course. However, for example, breast cancer in children will appear metastases in the lymph nodes. But metastases to distant organs breast cancer in children gives a much later than in adults.

Moreover, in any cancer localization, including breast cancer, symptoms first appear general disease (changes from the whole organism), and only then the change of tumor formation at the site. In adults, the opposite is true: in the beginning there are local (local), and then the overall change.

Cancer particularly in children is the fact that in its histological structure of the tumor cells are highly differentiated, that is not too different from the tissue from which they were formed. This is a favorable prognostic sign such cells are not rapidly penetrate into surrounding tissues and metastasize.

In most cases of breast cancer in children manifests itself in adolescence in girls (but maybe boys) as a result of hormonal changes in the body of the child. Contributing factors include a genetic predisposition (breast cancer in close relatives), high emotional stress, stress, early onset of smoking and drinking alcohol.

Breast cancer proceeds more benign children than in adults. One of the reasons for such a trend (except for relatively benign histological structure of the tumor) is that in a small breast child or adolescent to better identify tumors at early stages. This leads to better child survival in breast cancer (BC).

Breast cancer in children - the first signs

Breast cancer in children may first manifest itself in the form of the common symptoms: fatigue, weakness, weight loss, low-grade fever. The cause of these phenomena - a violation of cellular metabolism in the body of the child.

After some time, a small nodule may appear in the breast of the child. Since breast tissue a child has a small volume, easy to knot can be felt, even if it is very small (up to 1 cm in diameter). It can detect breast in children in the early stages.

However, during adolescence in girls is the breast, and quite large, making it difficult to identify cancer in its early stages. If a small tumor was not detected in a timely manner, then after a while it can metastasize to nearby (usually axillary, but sometimes in others) lymph nodes. With the growth of a cancerous tumor on her skin may change - it swells and takes the form of orange peel, wrinkled, or retracted. From nipple sometimes appear spotting.

Some types of breast cancer in children at the breast skin appear erosion, ulcers, accompanied by weeping, flakes and dried crust. Externally, these changes resemble eczema. Very rarely, and usually older girls show signs of inflammatory forms of breast cancer, which occurs in the form of mastitis, but this is a sign of late-stage disease. Metastases to distant organs in breast cancer in children is rare, later than in adults, and only in severe cases.

Diagnosis and treatment

Detection of breast cancer in children with a small volume of the breast is usually not difficult. The tumor is detected by palpation, then held her biopsy under the control of the ultrasonic beam them laboratory examination of the tumor cells. For large mammary glands in girls teenagers carried a full range of research, it is the same as that of adult women.

Treatment of breast cancer in children is prescribed individually and depends on the stage in which the disease was detected. Most often performed surgical treatment of the tumor.